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Error Code P0563 is defined as System Voltage High, meaning a voltage reading is higher than specified, a problem likely caused by a defective alternator, or starter, or problems in the battery, voltage regulator, or wiring.
This code is a generic trouble code, meaning it applies to all vehicles equipped with the OBD-II system, particularly those made in 1996 up to present. It is particularly common among Dodge, Ford, GM, Hyundai, Jeep, Kia, and Mercedes vehicles. Specifications on the definition, troubleshooting, and repairs, of course, vary from one make and model to another.
For a certain extent, the PCM (powertrain control module, also known as ECM or engine control module in other vehicle makes) controls the charging system of a vehicle, by controlling the power or ground circuit to the voltage regulator inside the alternator.
Even when the vehicle is turned off, the battery still sends electricity to the PCM, this power is then used by the latter to store code histories, fuel trim values, and various data. If the PCM reads that the voltage is out of range, then it assumes a fault in the power supply circuit, and trigger the Error Code P0563 automatically. This variation in the voltage could come from the battery itself, the alternator, or other components in the charging system or starting system.
As with other error codes, this code activates the Check Engine light and registers the code to the vehicle’s memory system. Other noticeable symptoms include:
- Activation of the battery light
- Increased fuel consumption
- Failure to shift properly
- Engine dying at idle
- Defective alternator
- Damaged battery
- Unusual battery drain
- Damaged starter
- Defective voltage regulator
- Corrosion in the battery terminals
- Short or open condition in the battery cables or wirings
- Defective PCM (rare)
How to Check
As with most codes, it is best to start your diagnosis of this error code with the use of a TSB (Technical Service Bulletin) for your particular vehicle. Vehicle manufacturers release troubleshooting and repairs for known issues.
Also, note that steps for troubleshooting may vary from makes, type of charging system control, and wire colors.
The most common cause for this problem is low battery voltage, disconnected battery, or faulty alternator which causes a problem in the charging system. In this case, it’s important to check the alternator belt as well.
Check the Charging System
The first step, check the charging system. Start the engine, and then load the electrical system by turning the headlights on and blower fan to high speed. Using a DVOM (digital volt-ohmmeter) check the battery’s voltage. It must be between 13.2V and 14.7V. If the voltage reading exceeds 15.5 volts, then you would have to diagnose the charging system, with emphasis on the alternator.
If unsure, have your battery, starting and charging system tested at an auto repair shop or a local parts store. You can also ask for a printout of the result. They can perform this service for a small charge, some even for free,
If the voltage is correct, then clear the diagnostic trouble codes from the memory using your scan tool to see if the code returns. If it does NOT return, then this code is either intermittent or is a history/memory code, and no further diagnosis may be required.
If the code DOES return, then locate the PCM and check its connectors and wirings. Look for signs of damage, such as bare wires, burn spots, melted plastic, rubbing, scraping, etc. Pull the connectors apart and check the metal parts of the terminals within the connectors, and look for signs of burnt or corrosion (green tint). If the terminal needs cleaning, clean it using electrical contact cleaner and a plastic bristle brush. Let it dry and apply electrical grease where the terminals contact.
Then, clear the codes using the scan tool, and if it comes back. If it does NOT, then you have problems on your connection.
If the code comes back again, then you have to check the voltage to the PCM. Disconnect the negative connection at the battery. Then, disconnect the harness that goes to the PCM. Reconnect the battery cable and then turn the ignition switch on. Using the DVOM, test the PCM ignition feed circuit (red lead to the PCM ignition feed circuit, black lead to good ground). If there is less battery voltage on this circuit, then repair the wirings in the PCM connected to the ignition switch.
If it’s ok, then check to make sure you have a good ground at the PCM. Connect a test light on 12V battery positive (red terminal) and touch the other end of the test light to the ground circuit that goes to the PCM ignition feed circuit ground. If the light doesn’t light up, then the problem is the circuit. If it does light up, wiggle the harness that goes to the PCM to see if the light flickers. If it does flicker, then you have an intermittent connection problem.
How to Fix
Depending on your diagnosis, common repairs include:
- Replacement of the battery cables
- Replacement of the battery itself
- Cleaning corrosion off of the battery terminals and posts
- Replacement of the alternator
- Replacement of starter
- Replacement of PCM (rare)
In most cases, the alternator is the culprit of the problem. Thus, it’s best to diagnose thoroughly, especially the cables and wires, before replacing anything, especially the battery.
This code can keep the vehicle from being driven, possibly putting the engine into limp mode or keep it from starting at all. Anytime you see a problem with your vehicle’s charging system or starting system, it is crucial to have addressed by a qualified technician as soon as possible.